Jordi Casamitjana, the author of the book “Ethical Vegan”, looks at how animals are treated in India by reviewing two documentaries, “The Land of Ahimsa” and “Mother’s Milk”, which dispel many myths. 

I have never been to India.

This does not mean that I do not know anything about the country, because I would venture to say that India is one of the Eastern countries that Westerners, especially British people, say they know more about. I live in London, where there is a substantial population of people from India and other South Asian countries (I never quite understood why, in the UK, the term “Asian”, without any more information, tends to be understood as only meaning Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan, but this is one of the quirks of British culture, I suppose), so I not unfamiliar with many of their customs. Even more, I would say that Indian cuisine has become the stereotypical going-out food for most Britons. Well, a version of it, as, interestingly, according to a 2012 survey of 2,000 people in Britain, Chicken tikka masala was the UK’s second-most popular “foreign” dish to eat — but it turns out it was invented either in England or Scotland by Indian immigrants.

However, I suspect that, like in the case of this false traditional Indian dish, many of the things I and my co-residents think about India may not be correct, or could be simple stereotypes partially reinforced by the past colonial history of the country. One of these may be how animals are treated in India. 

In one article I wrote about “Veganism by Numbers” I said that in 2022 there were 5 million vegans in India. The source from which I got this figure is now gone, but it has been quoted elsewhere. Other sources go far higher than that, estimating that 9% of the Indian population is vegan (the biggest number in any country). In 2023, the polling organisation YouGov conducted a survey that revealed that 59% of Indians are likely to consider a vegan diet in the near future. Whatever the actual number of vegans India has, there is little doubt that India is the country with the most vegetarians (estimated to be 574 million). Most Hindus and Jains tend to be vegetarian, the term ahimsa (in Sanskrit meaning “do no harm or “non-violence”), the main axiom of veganism, was created there millennia ago, and we all have heard about cows being sacred animals in the sub-continent. Therefore, the natural conclusion is to assume that non-human animals will be treated better in India than in other countries, in particular, cows.

That is a stereotype I already knew was wrong, as I have been working in animal protection for some time, but I recently learned of some data that shocked me. India is said to have become the largest exporter of milk in the world, one of the largest exporters of “beef” meat, and the fifth largest exporter of bovine leather. How can that be? That is certainly not the profile of an animal-friendly country, let alone a vegan-friendly country. Where did I get this surprising information from?  From Indian animal protection activists themselves. In particular, from two feature-length documentaries they produced titled “The Land of Ahimsa” and “Mother’s Milk (Maa Ka Doodh)”, the English versions of which I recently watched.

In this article, I will be reviewing them, and sharing what I have learnt about the truth of the exploitation of animals in India.

The Land of Ahimsa

Dolly Vyas-Ahuja in The Land of Ahimsa

The Land of Ahimsa is a Karuna Films 2022 documentary directed by Bollywood actor Aryeman Ramsay and produced by Mayur Ahuja (producer), Sailesh Rao (executive producer), Jane Velez-Mitchell (co-executive producer) and Dolly Vyas-Ahuja (producer, and host). Javed Shaikh was the cinematographer, and Shekhar Koditkar and Ray Kowalchuk were the editors. 

Like many other documentaries, its narrative is structured in the form of a protagonist whose arc story allows us to discover the truth of something we thought we knew, but didn’t. As with great vegan documentaries such as Cowspiracy and What The Health, we follow the story through the eyes of one person who tries to find answers to pressing questions, and travels far to interview the right experts. In this case, that person is Dolly Vyas-Ahuja, 

Dolly Vyas-Ahuja is an animal rights activist from Huston, Texas, US who is of Indian origin. Her grandfather, Chhaganlal Joshi, was a Freedom fighter who marched alongside Gandhi to liberate India from British rule. The film follows Dolly as she returns to her homeland after having discovered the power of “Ahimsa” through her transition to a vegan lifestyle after adopting the philosophy of veganism. 

Her journey begins when, as she says, “I soon realised that being vegan is not enough”, which let her to travel to India to find the answer to several questions she has heard Indians often asking: 1) If Lord Krishna had milk, why can’t we?, 2) Why do we sacrifice animals in the name of God?, 3) Is milk the only source of Calcium and Proteins, 4) Why animal agriculture is the main source of global warming/, and the most important question, 5) Is India still the land of ahimsa?

The documentary relies on the testimony of many experts to get the message across. We hear from politicians, such as the MP Maneka Gandhi, and from many animal protection people such as Darshana Muzundar, Shweta Salva, Prabhat Gautam, Arvind, Danielle Alexander, Satish Karandikar, Poorvi Joshipura, Jane Velez-Mitchell, Renee King-Sonnen, Atul Sarin, Malvika Kalra, Dr Anuj Shah, Saloni Desai, Rubaina Ali, Amjor Chandran, and Jim Mayers. 

Combined, supported by useful graphics, animations, data, and the actual sad images of the exploitation of animals, these experts tell us about something that is often overlooked: dairy addiction is at the root of animal exploitation, and any country that has a big dairy industry will be a country where animal exploitation and suffering are rampant. A country with lots of Lacto-vegetarians means there will be more people consuming dairy products, so it would have a powerful dairy industry. This is what India has become now, and since it is now the country with the highest human population, it is also the country with the highest population of dairy consumers.

Although the documentary takes a considerable time to discuss the dairy industry and its connection with the “beef” industry (more about this later), it also covers other types of animal exploitation, such as the farming of chickens and the use of elephants for rides, work, circuses, and religious ceremonies. In this regard, I found it well-balanced and quite complete.

To give us an accurate picture of how animal agriculture and exploitation, and in particular the dairy industry, is bad for spirituality, health, and the environment of India, we also hear from spiritual experts, such as Dr Saman Shri Shrut Pragya, Gaurav Jain, Thomas Wade Jackson, Dr Jasvant Modi, and Dr Sulekh Jain; physicians such as Dr Bandana Chawla, Dr Neal Bernard, Dr Deepak Kotecha, Dr Marticia Heaner, Dr Rupa Shah, Dr Zeeshan Ali, Dr Nandita Sah, D Munish Chawla, Dr Rizwan Bukhari, Vidya Chakravarthy, Dr Ashwani Garg, and Dr Preeti Savardekar; and climate experts, such as Dr Sailesh Rao and filmmaker Keegan Kuhn (who co-directed Cowspiracy with Kip Andersen).

We hear poignant sentences such as “Milk is liquid meat”, “If Lord Krishna would be here today, would he approve of this violence?”, “India has become the diabetic capital of the world because the consumption of meat and dairy is rising,”, “Most Indians have lactose intolerance”, “95% of Indian forests have been cleared for animal agriculture”, “About 50% of corn grown in India is fed to non-human animals”, and the shocking “India is the leading exporter of milk, “beef”, and leather.” 

We also see experts talking about how veganism not only can tackle all these problems, but also how easy is to become vegan these days, and how healthy and fit vegans can be (we hear from Indian vegan athletes such as Kuntal Joisher, Rohit Gokarn, Rajat Wadhwa, Gunjan Sharma, and Abhishek Thevar). We even hear of Philip Wollen, the Indian-born Australian animal rights philanthropist, and the Game of Thrones actor Jerome Flynn. Finally, several Indian vegan entrepreneurs showcase the vegan products they have championed.   

This breadth of expertise is clearly the strength of this documentary, showing how many experts, most of them Indian or of Indian origin, converge in this view that India, which was the land of ahimsa millennia ago, no longer is, due to the ethical corruption the dairy industry brought to the country (spearheaded by the British when they were colonisers, by the way). This industry created the meat industry from the flesh of cows (banned from slaughter in some states) and buffaloes (not protected in the entire nation) used for dairy and then discarded, and this is why India is now the top exporter of “beef” (meat from both species) too. However, these experts also believe that India could become the land of Ahimsa again if it embraces veganism.  Seth Tibbott, the founder of Tofurky, says, “I think India would be a great vegan country one day, and Gandhi would be very proud.”  

This documentary is very useful for understanding the cultural and religious context of the use of animals and the consumption of milk in India (not just for food but used in religious ceremonies as well), and it provides all the alternatives to such use so non-vegan Indians may feel reassured that they can transition to a vegan lifestyle without having to breach their traditions.  

The Land of Ahimsa is a very complete vegan documentary which won Best Documentary Feature at the FFI London Film Festival, and Best Documentary awards at the Hong Kong International Film Festival, the Boston Independent Film Festival, the WRPN International Women’s Film Festival and the Cineville Calcutta Global Cinefest. It can be watched for free on

Mother’s Milk (Maa Ka Doodh)

Harsha Atmakuri in Mother’s Milk

The 2023 Empathy Films documentary Mother’s Milk (Maa Ka Doodh) was written and directed by  Harsha Atmakuri, and produced by him together with Jim Greenbaum (executive producer), Zachary Lovas (co-producer) and Suresh Sharma (co-producer). 

This one also uses a “protagonist” to help the narrative, although there is less of an explicit arc or prominent discovery journey. In this case, it is the story of an Indian medical doctor, Dr Harsha Atmakuri, who quits his job and embarks on an investigative journey across India to find out if there is indeed a link between the nation’s massive dairy consumption and its beef exports.

The trigger to the story is when Dr Harsha discovered that the supposedly cruelty-free “Ahimsa milk” that was served in a Jain temple was in fact commercial milk. This sets him on his journey which is similar to that of the previous documentary, but much more centred on the dairy industry, and in answering the question of whether there is such a thing as “ahimsa milk” (milk obtained without the suffering of any sentient being).

One of the interesting things about this documentary is how it explicitly shows us the many excuses Indians use to consume milk when confronted with the reality of the dairy industry. One by one, we find different Indians of all demographics saying, “It doesn’t happen in our village”, “But God gave us milk”, “Karma will take care of it, don’t worry”, “You people are destroying the livelihood of farmers”, “We only drink gaushala milk”, “Relax, the cows are safer than women in India”, “First, focus on human issues”, “Have you come to corrupt our religion”, “What about Ghee?”, “I can’t live without my chai”, “What about Sheikhand?”, “What about calcium?”, etc.

This documentary also has very good graphics and animations which are used to explain in a lot of detail what is the situation of the dairy industry in the country. We learn that 20% of the dairy industry is organised (with companies such as Anun and Nandini), and 80% is unorganised, composed of traditional tabelas (farms), milk persons, local vendors, and animals kept by families. We also learn that milk production increased 19-fold in the last 60 years (the white revolution) and the country is now the top exporter of milk (exported to more than 100 countries). 

However, what is more interesting is the connection between the milk and meat industries. Not only do most of the cows of the dairy industry end up sold to local butchers (or transported to other states where butchers would buy them) for meat and leather, but buffalos, another bovid used for milk, are also killed for meat, in bigger quantities (as Hinduism does not consider them sacred).  There are not massive cow meat farms (“beef” farms) in India as we see them in the West, but there are 110 government-approved buffalo slaughterhouses. The flesh from the dairy cows and the buffalos together is the “beef” the country exports to other nations such as China, making the country one of the top “beef” exporters.

Like The Land of Ahimsa, this documentary also includes many interviews of Indian experts presenting the arguments about the suffering of cows even in small farms and the link between the dairy industry and the meat industry. We can also hear from the Member of the Indian parliament Maneka Gandhi MP, as well as the animal protection experts Shakuntala Majumdar, Friederike Irina Bruning, Shymraj Iyer, Sangita Golant, Gauri Mavlekhi, Abhinav Skihan, Umkar Rane, Shankar Narayan, Arjon Das Saini, Gav Nandi Seva, mary Wingler, Atul Sarin, and Mini Vasudevan. We also hear from scientists and scholars such as Dr Valadrancam Krishnaiyenger, Dr Sailesh Rao, and Saurabh Bondre; and spiritual experts, such as Brahma Praksam Maha Saivam, Acharya Prashant, Nitya Shanti, and Brahamanda Swamy.  As with the other documentaries, we also hear from vegan athletes, such as Kuntal Joisher and Arshad Aman. 

This film also covers the issue of health, and how unhealthy is dairy. We hear from many physicians and health experts, including Mayavi Khandelwal, Dr Neal Bernard, Dr Nandita Shah, Dr Rupa Shah, Dr Vidya Chakravarthy, Dr Abhilash Anand, and Arati Kedia. 

Mother’s Milk (Maa Ka Doodh) has won the awards of Best Documentary Jaipur International Film Festival and Best Documentary Cannes World Film Festival, among others. It can be watched free in several Indian languages on YouTube, and there is also an English version

The Cruelty of The Indian Dairy Industry


Watching both documentaries one can have a very good idea of the cruelty of the dairy industry in India. Like any other dairy industry in any country, farming cows for milk has an intrinsic element of cruelty in that the cows have been genetically manipulated to create more milk than the wild species they were domesticated from (which causes them suffering), in that they are made pregnant as soon as they reach puberty age (around 1.5 years old) and put in a continuous cycle of pregnancy (which degrades their bodies), in that they are often forcibly impregnated (often through manual insemination after forcibly obtaining semen from a bull) so they can get pregnant and produce milk, in that the calves are removed from the mothers so they do not drink the milk that was intended for them (causing distress to both), and in that when the cows decrease “production” they are no longer profitable by the farmers so they will be treated as disposable “commodities” and will end up dying well before their time (10-12 years at the most from the 20 years they could live). This is the same everywhere. 

However, in India, there are particular elements of cruelty added. Firstly, the cows or female buffaloes in small dairy farms are often kept in filthy concrete structures tied up with chains or ropes to a nearby post or fence, so they cannot move much. They are kept this way under very hot weather often with not much water to drink. In the West, when male calves are born (who will not produce milk when growing up) they are killed straight away or taken to veal facilities where they will be killed soon after, but in India, they are normally abandoned (which is arguably crueller), perhaps tied up somewhere so they would die of starvation.

Another practice used in the Indian dairy industry is Khal Bacha (which translates to “skin baby”) in which a dead male calf’s skin is stuffed with hay or sawdust and kept in front of a cow or female buffalo to deceive her into thinking that her calf is still alive so that she does not stop producing milk. 

As for the fate of the cows that stop producing milk, if they are buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis), the animals that constitute the majority of the dairy producers, they will be sold to butchers so they can be slaughtered for meat or leather (normally both). On the other side, if they are dairy cows (from the Indian sub-species Bos taurus indicus, or some just say the species Bos indicus,) if they are in Indian States where they cannot be legally butchered, they will be transported in cramped trucks to the Indian states where they can be butchered, they will be illegally butchered, or they will be abandoned in the streets. The latter will have a horrible end of life as they are likely to ingest many plastics while they are starving trying to find some food in the rubbish (most of the street cows have between 50 and 60 Kg of plastics in their stomachs), they will be hit by cars and left to die without veterinary attention, they will be taken by meat smugglers to be butchered somewhere (without stunning them first, sometimes by hitting them on the head repeatedly), or they will die of starvation — so, those images of cows in the middle of Indian streets that are shown in the West as examples of how sacred cows are in India are not images of happy “free” cows but of suffering “abandoned” cows. There are some cow shelters, as well as animal protection organisations (the representatives of which appear in both documentaries) that help many cows in need, but they are quite powerless and cannot help the majority as the scale of the problem is huge.    

There is no such thing as “cruelty-free” animal milk, and whatever religion tells people how they should treat cows in India, it does not prevent them from suffering horrible lives and deaths.

The Link Between the Dairy Industry and the Meat Industry in India

Cows going to slaughter in India (c) Empathy Films

One of the big differences between the farming of cows in the West and India is the fact that, in the latter, domestic buffaloes have been added to the equation, and their appearance in the meat industry has very much to do with the complex religious and political factors that affect how dairy cows are treated in the country. I found the documentary Mother’s Milk particularly educational on this issue. 

We have to go to the beginning to understand it. All bulls and cows we find today (classed under the species Bos taurus) are descended from as few as 80 animals who were domesticated from wild oxes in the Near East some 10,500 years ago. Since then, three sub-species were created by people, first the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius) closer to the original wild ox and no longer in existence today, and from this one the taurine bulls and cows (Bos taurus taurus or Bos taurus) and the Zebu or Indian cows (Bos taurus indicus or Bos indicus) which form all the breeds of all domestic bulls and cows alive today. On the other side, another bovid, the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), also called the domestic water buffalo or Asian water buffalo, was domesticated much later, around 5,000 years ago, from the wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee).

Traditionally, people in India treated these bovids differently. Cows, domesticated for a longer time, were considered part of the extended family, while the buffaloes were not (which were seen as less intelligent, lazy, and somehow “impure”). This eventually led to the banning of the sacrifices of cows for religious reasons, while the sacrifices of buffaloes, chickens, goats, owls, and wild boars were allowed (today, most Hindu temples don’t encourage animal sacrifices anymore and are vegetarian).     

Then the British colonised India, and with it, they brought their methods of farming cows (as well as the Western breeds). Their interest in dairy products, which was not great in India before their arrival, transformed the production of milk into a big industry. Dairy became a tool of economic empowerment rather than a source of food for the population (ghee, a type of clarified butter, was widely used but actual milk was not drunk that much, as most Indians were lactose intolerant — and they still are), as the British class favoured the farming of cows for the products they liked to consume. That’s when the big Indian dairy company, Amul, was created, and it continues today being the main PR driver of the industry. 

But then, naturally, economics became mixed up with politics, and cows became geopolitical pawns played by Hindus clashing with Muslims, and Indian Nationalists clashing with the British and their sympathisers (even the emergence of some people labelled as gaurakshaks, or cow vigilantes, who seem to only care about Bos taurus indicus, became a source of political tension). In 1966, the anti-cow slaughter agitation in Delhi ended with police shooting at a crowd of protestors, and later this led Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to consider a nationwide ban on the slaughtering of cows. That national ban never happened, but later some states did pass laws to protect cows.

In the mix of politics, economics was still operating trying to get as much profit from cows as possible (as despite being sacred in Hinduism they were still considered commodities to exploit). If some people would not consume cow’s meat for religious reasons, it could be sold to people from other religions, or even better, exported to countries without such limitations. That worked for a while, but then India banned the export of meat from cows. That is when the buffaloes came in. Exploiting buffaloes for meat and milk had no religious or political obstacles, so both the milk and “beef” industry began shifting toward the poor buffaloes (the “beef” from buffalo is labelled “carabeef”, and thus a ban on beef exports is not affecting it — although it is essentially the same “product” as it is the flesh of closely related bovids). 

This is the situation in 2022 (when the documentaries were made): Nine Indian States and Union Territories did not have bans on cow or buffalo slaughter, and 18 States and the rest of the territories had a complete ban on cow and calf slaughter. However, for bulls, ox, and buffalo calves, some states allowed their slaughter, while others didn’t. For buffalos, today slaughter remains legal in all states except in Chhattisgarh, the only state in India that has a complete ban on all cow and buffalo slaughter and transport, irrespective of age and gender.

All these regional bans (most of which are speciesist as are discriminatory against buffaloes, who are the majority of farmed bovids in India today) mean that the cows and buffaloes are being transported from state to state, but they end up being killed anyway, either whenever the law allows it, or in illegal clandestine slaughterhouses. There is also a lot of smuggling of animals to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan as there are no laws to prevent them from killing them there, and still political tension using the cow’s issue as an excuse (there are still cow vigilantes). 

Again, there is no such thing as “cruelty-free” animal milk in India, as in this country the dairy industry is directly linked to the meat industry that is based on killing animals for profit. 

Is There Such a Thing as “Ahimsa Milk”?

Animal Liberation March in India in 2019 (c) Karuna Films

Not all people in India are Hindus. According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism, 14.2% adheres to Islam, 2.3% adheres to Christianity, 1.7% adheres to Sikhism, 0.7% adheres to Buddhism and 0.4% adheres to Jainism. Most Muslims and Christians are likely to eat meat, as would be many Sikhs and Buddhists, and even if most Hindus are Lacto-vegetarian, not all are (most Vaishna Hindus who worship Vishnu would be, but not necessarily those worshipping other deities). However, all Jains should be.  

Followers of the millenarian religion of Jainism are called Jains, and their ideas come from twenty-four Sramana monks known as Tirthankaras, the twenty-fourth being Mahavira. For Jains, mammals, birds, and fishes are all five-sensed beings, invertebrates have two or three senses and plants only have one sense. Jains try to avoid hurting all living beings, but the more senses they believe they have, the more important it is to prevent their suffering. Devout Jains take five main vows: Ahiṃsā (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (not stealing), Brahmacharya (celibacy or chastity or sexual continence) and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness). The first vow means, in practice, living a Lacto-vegetarian lifestyle which avoids harm to all animals (including insects) but allows the consumption of milk. In the West, though, many Jains are vegan (I have met several vegan Jains in London, and I have even given talks about veganism to Jain communities), but in India most continue using dairy products, and when informed that this would go against ahimsa due to the suffering cows endure, many say that they only consume “ahimsa milk”, produced with different methods which do not cause suffering (and there are some brands of milk labelled this way).

The people who claim they only consume “ahimsa milk” claim it is taken from well-looked-after isolated cows that are not forcibly impregnated, not separated from their calves, not abandoned, and not killed. Well, that’s a myth. This does not happen because it is not practical. A video titled “Shocking Facts about AHIMSA MILK? | Indian Cows | Gau Raksha | Voice of Vegans” created by Shivam from Voice of Vegans explains very well why this is the case. 

He does a useful quantitative analysis showing that if a family farm starts with three cows to produce milk and does not kill or abandon anyone based on the “ahimsa” method, in 14 years 259 animals would have been born that would not produce milk, so 72% of the animals the farm would need to look after would not be giving any “product”, clearly unaffordable for any farm or family. 

The so-called “ahimsa milk” that people may see in the market is, in fact, milk from commercial farms disguised as something less cruel, or the equivalent of “organic milk” we find in the West (just a PR scheme to sell more milk and make it look less cruel) because the ahimsa milk production model is simply unfeasible, and any slight improvements in the way cows are treated do not eliminate their suffering. However, even if someone in a family decided to get a cow and consume the milk once or twice (only when she became pregnant naturally and the calves still drank all the milk they needed) following the theoretical concept of “ahimsa milk” production, this would still be unethical animal exploitation that all vegans should avoid — it would be a similar situation than the consumption of eggs from backyard hens.  

In his video, Shivam says, “Ahimsa milk is the root of the cruelty in the dairy industry today because this is how things would have started. Someone had a companion animal who was a cow, during her pregnancy maybe the calf was sick and they gave milk, which the calf did not drink, and the person drank the milk and they thought, ‘Wait a second, I can drink milk from the cow.’ Next year, then, they control how much milk the calf drinks, and they reduce it by 20%, Next year, they reduce it by 50%, because the greed is increasing. Why do they have to give milk to the calf at all when they can manage the bare minimum health of the calf with probably solid food or artificial milk? And then someone thought, ‘Hey, we have exhausted all our thought processes on how to limit the calf from drinking the milk. Now we have to think from the other end that is how to increase milk production. Let’s think about some chemicals that we can inject so that milk production increases. That is how the dairy industry transformed into what it is today. “

The consumption of milk from another species legitimises seeing other sentient beings as “producers” You have the right to “own”  and “exploit”, so it would always be morally wrong. “ahimsa milk” is as much of an oxymoron as the term “humane slaughter”. 

There are lots of myths about how animals are treated in India that need to be debunked, and the two documentaries I reviewed are very good sources to do that as they are produced by Indian animal advocates who know what happens in their country — the fact we mostly see Indian experts in both documentaries is their major strength. The combination of both documentaries would work very well for Western audiences (I recommend watching The Land of Ahimsa first, as it is more generalised and will give a wider context, and then Mother’s Milk as it will dig deeper into the dairy industry and history), and they a free and accessible.  

India is now the country with the largest human population, it’s one of the largest world economies and continues to be a spiritual centre for many people, even for outsiders. If India does not lead the veganism movement, it will take much longer to reach the vegan world humanity, non-human animals, and the planet desperately needs. However, India has so much potential to become a vegan country, that there is great hope that it will take the responsibility to do so and overcome all the obstacles that are on the way. Not only it may already be the country with more vegans, but as can be seen with the number of experts and vegan advocates shown in the documentaries, it has a strong vegan movement.  Besides, considering the socio-political circumstances of the country, veganism may be the solution yet to be applied that may bring more peace and political stability (veganism is similar to the anti-casteism movement as both tend to abolish systematic oppression of the dominant group).

Veganism is the future of India, and when it is fully embraced completely replacing vegetarianism, India could become the future of the world.

I feel I know much more about India now.

“Originally from Catalonia, but resident in the UK for several decades, Jordi is a vegan zoologist and author, who has been involved in different aspects of animal protection for many years. In addition to scientific research, he has worked mostly as an undercover investigator, animal welfare consultant, and animal protection campaigner. He has been an ethical vegan since 2002, and in 2020 he secured the legal protection of all ethical vegans in Great Britain from discrimination in a landmark employment tribunal case that was discussed all over the world. He is also the author of the book, ‘Ethical Vegan: a personal and political journey to change the world’.